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Originally published at edu.sina.com.cn

Climate change experts have released maps of the world revealing how prepared different countries are to cope with the effects of climate change。

  最近,气候变化专家发布了一张气候地图,该图显示了全球不同国家对气候变化的应对情况。

全球气候变化应对地图全球气候变化应对地图

  In the maps, 192 countries are ranked by their ‘vulnerability’ and ‘readiness’, to produce an overall judgement on their fate。

  从“脆弱”性和“准备”性这两个角度,这张地图评价了全球192个国家对气候变化的应对情况。

  The results reveal that Scandinavian countries and the UK are among the most likely to survive - butareas of sub-Saharan Africa will be hardest hit。    

  结果显示斯堪的纳维亚和英国受气候变化影响最小,而撒哈拉以南非洲将面临最大威胁。

  The maps were created by London-based company The Eco Experts, using data from the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, known as the ND-GainIndex。

  这张地图由伦敦The Eco Experts公司制作,数据来自印第安纳州的诺特丹大学,被称作ND-Gain Index。

  They took into account location,terrain, pollution rates and national resources when calculating which countries would be most affected。

  他们将位置、地形、污染程度和国家资源都纳入评判标准,以此来计算哪些国家最易被气候变化所影响。

  Countries like Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark score well on the scale。

  挪威、瑞典、芬兰和丹麦等国家的得分很高。

  But places like Central America,Africa and India all appear at risk from natural disaster - and are poorly equipped to cope, said The Eco Experts。

  而中美洲、非洲和印度则极易遭受自然灾害,而且它们的应对措施也十分不完备。

COUNTRIES THAT WILL BE MOST AND LEAST AFFECTED BY    CLIMATE CHANGE

受气候变化影响最大和最小国家排行

Least affected

影响最小

Score

得分

Most affected

影响最大

Score

得分

1 - Norway        

  挪威

     82.7 1 – Chad   

  乍得

       31.6
2 - New Zealand

  新西兰

     82.2 2 –Eritrea     

  厄立特里亚国

       33.8
3 - Sweden

  瑞典

     81.6 2 - Burundi

  布隆迪

       33.8
4 – Finland

  芬兰

     81.5 4 - Democratic Republic of Congo

  刚果民主共和国

       34.0
5 – Denmark

  丹麦

     81.4 4  - Central Africa Republic

  中非共和国

       34.0
6 – Australia

  澳大利亚

     80.1 6 – Sudan

  苏丹

       35.5   
7 - United Kingdom

  英国

     80.0 7 – Niger

  尼日尔

       35.6
8 - United States

  美国

    78.9 7 – Haiti

  海地

       35.6
9 – Germany

  德国

    78.8 7 –Afghanistan

  阿富汗

       35.6
9 – Iceland

  冰岛

    78.8 10 - Guinea-Bissau

  几内亚比绍

       37.3

  Jon Whiting, of The Eco Expertswarned: ‘Hurricanes, earthquakes, blizzards, droughts and flooding are all real dangers for some of these areas, and this is compounded by a lack of national strategy to counteract the effects.’

  The Eco Experts专家Jon Whiting警告说:“飓风、地震、暴风雪、干旱和洪水会严重威胁这些地区,而国家应对措施的缺失更会加剧这一风险。

  Burundi, Chad, Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo produced some of the lowest scores, meaning these countries will be the biggest victims of weather disasters。

  布隆迪、乍得、苏丹和刚果民主共和国得分最低,它们即将成为气候变化的最大受害者。

  The map is based on data compiled by the ND-Gain index, which has been monitoring 45 internal and external indicators of climate change exposure of 192 countries since 1992.

  这张图的数据来自于 ND-Gain index。自1992年以来,ND-Gain index就通过观察45个内部和外部指标,来评判全球192个国家的气候变化情况。

  The index is built on two variables; ‘vulnerability’ and ‘readiness’ for which a country gets a separate mark for each. These scores tally up to produce an overall total indicating howa particular nation would fare。

  这项指标有两个指数:“脆弱”指数和“准备”指数。每个国家在这两项上都有一个得分,指数之和则显示这个国家未来的命运。

  On the scale, the country best equipped to cope with the effects of climate change was Norway. In fact, Norway has topped the ranking every year since the Index began in 1995.

  在这张表中,挪威的应对措施最为完备。事实上,自1995年以来,挪威就一直雄踞榜首。

欧洲欧洲

  Most countries across Europe will be not be severely affected by climate change, according to the map. It takes into accounts many factors such as access to clean drinking water and the risk of heat waves。

  地图显示,大多数欧洲国家都不会过多地被气候变化所影响。地图考虑到众多因素,如干净的水源和遭受热浪的风险。

非洲非洲
南美洲南美洲

  But places in sub-Saharan Africa (shown upper) will be most affected by a warming climate, while some countries in America like Bolivia (below) will also also be severely affected by global warming。

  然而气候变暖对撒哈拉以南非洲国家影响最大,此外,每周的一些国家,例如玻利维亚,也会大受影响。

北美洲北美洲

  North America will also apparently be able to cope with the effects of climate change, thanks to high readiness scores for the USA and Canada。

  显然,得益于美国和加拿大,北美洲的得分也很高,。

亚洲亚洲

  Asia has a wide range of scores for different countries, owing to the vastly different climates and levels of infrastructure in various countries. Surprisingly, Australia comes out fairly well in the map, despite being a notoriously hot country。

  由于气候和基础设施的差异,亚洲各个国家的指数相差较大。尽管天气炎热,澳大利亚在应对气候变化上却表现优异。

岛屿岛屿

  Various islands such as Haiti will be severely affected by climate change, perhaps due to the effects of rising sea levels. Others like Barbados, though, will apparently avoid some of the worst effect。

  由于海平面的上升,气候变化也许会对众多岛屿国家产生影响。但对于某些国家,例如巴巴多斯,影响则不会很大。

  (来源:《每日邮报》;编译:Heidi)

Sea levels are rising faster than scientists thought: Climate change has triggered acceleration, claims study

 

Sea levels have risen faster than expected in the last 20 years as a result of global warming and other factors, according to new research.

The study claims that estimates for sea level rises between 1901 and 1990 were too high due to incomplete records.

But from 1990 to 2010, sea levels were correctly predicted to be rising faster than ever before.  

This caused a discrepancy in which the slower sea level rise seen in the last century caused the increase in recent years to appear even more rapid.

The study was carried out by scientists at Harvard University in Massachusetts. 

Incomplete records from previous estimates of global sea-level rise in the 20th Century had been overestimated by as much as 30 per cent, they say.

And the new figures suggest that in the past two decades, since 1990, the rate of sea-level rise has accelerated more quickly than previously believed.

Since 1990 global sea levels have risen by about 3mm (0.12 inches) annually as the ice caps and glaciers melt because of rising temperatures.

Previous estimates had placed sea-level rise at between 1.5mm and 1.8mm (0.06 and 0.07 inches) annually from 1901 to 1990 - but now that figure is thought to be closer to just 1.2mm (0.05 inches).

RISING SEA LEVEL ESTIMATES 

Previous estimates had placed sea-level rise at between 1.5mm and 1.8mm (0.06 and 0.07 inches) annually from 1901 to 1990. 

But, now that figure is thought to be closer to just 1.2mm (0.05 inches). 

When looking at the more recent figures, from 1990 and 2010, they found the estimates and the actual rising levels more closely matched - at around 3mm (0.12 inches) per year.  

The slower sea level rise seen in the last century causes a discrepancy. 

And this gap in the figures makes the increase in recent years appear even more rapid. 

Scientists claim that the rate of increase in rising sea levels has, therefore, been underestimated by about 0.6mm (0.02 inches), overall. 

The slower sea level rise seen in the last century causes a discrepancy. 

And this gap in the figures makes the increase in recent years appear even more rapid. 

Scientists claim that the rate of increase in rising sea levels has, therefore, been underestimated by about 0.6mm (0.02 inches), overall.

Dr Eric Morrow in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences said: 'What this paper shows is that sea-level acceleration over the past century has been greater than had been estimated by others. It's a larger problem than we initially thought.

'Another concern with this is that many efforts to project sea-level change into the future use estimates of sea level over the time period from 1900 to 1990.

'If we've been overestimating the sea level change during that period, it means that these models are not calibrated appropriately, and that calls into question the accuracy of projections out to the end of the 21st century.'

Dr Carling Hay, from the same department, added: 'Scientists now believe that most of the world's ice sheets and mountain glaciers are melting in response to rising temperatures.

'Melting ice sheets cause global mean sea level to rise. Understanding this contribution is critical in a warming world.'